# Literals¶ ↑

Literals create objects you can use in your program. Literals include:

• Booleans and nil

• Numbers

• Strings

• Symbols

• Arrays

• Hashes

• Ranges

• Regular Expressions

• Procs

## Booleans and nil¶ ↑

`nil` and `false` are both false values. `nil` is sometimes used to indicate “no value” or “unknown” but evaluates to `false` in conditional expressions.

`true` is a true value. All objects except `nil` and `false` evaluate to a true value in conditional expressions.

(There are also the constants `TRUE`, `FALSE` and `NIL`, but the lowercase literal forms are preferred.)

## Numbers¶ ↑

You can write integers of any size as follows:

```1234
1_234
```

These numbers have the same value, 1,234. The underscore may be used to enhance readability for humans. You may place an underscore anywhere in the number.

Floating point numbers may be written as follows:

```12.34
1234e-2
1.234E1
```

These numbers have the same value, 12.34. You may use underscores in floating point numbers as well.

You can use a special prefix to write numbers in decimal, hexadecimal, octal or binary formats. For decimal numbers use a prefix of `0d`, for hexadecimal numbers use a prefix of `0x`, for octal numbers use a prefix of `0` or `0o`, for binary numbers use a prefix of `0b`. The alphabetic component of the number is not case-sensitive.

Examples:

```0d170
0D170

0xaa
0xAa
0xAA
0Xaa
0XAa
0XaA

0252
0o252
0O252

0b10101010
0B10101010
```

All these numbers have the same decimal value, 170. Like integers and floats you may use an underscore for readability.

### `Rational` numbers¶ ↑

Numbers suffixed by `r` are `Rational` numbers.

```12r         #=> (12/1)
12.3r       #=> (123/10)
```

`Rational` numbers are exact, whereas `Float` numbers are inexact.

```0.1r + 0.2r #=> (3/10)
0.1 + 0.2   #=> 0.30000000000000004
```

### `Complex` numbers¶ ↑

Numbers suffixed by `i` are `Complex` (or imaginary) numbers.

```1i          #=> (0+1i)
1i * 1i     #=> (-1+0i)
```

Also `Rational` numbers may be imaginary numbers.

```12.3ri      #=> (0+(123/10)*i)
```

`i` must be placed after `r`, the opposite is not allowed.

`12.3ir      #=> syntax error`

## Strings¶ ↑

The most common way of writing strings is using `"`:

```"This is a string."
```

The string may be many lines long.

Any internal `"` must be escaped:

```"This string has a quote: \".  As you can see, it is escaped"
```

Double-quote strings allow escaped characters such as `\n` for newline, `\t` for tab, etc. The full list of supported escape sequences are as follows:

```\a             bell, ASCII 07h (BEL)
\b             backspace, ASCII 08h (BS)
\t             horizontal tab, ASCII 09h (TAB)
\n             newline (line feed), ASCII 0Ah (LF)
\v             vertical tab, ASCII 0Bh (VT)
\f             form feed, ASCII 0Ch (FF)
\r             carriage return, ASCII 0Dh (CR)
\e             escape, ASCII 1Bh (ESC)
\s             space, ASCII 20h (SPC)
\\             backslash, \
\nnn           octal bit pattern, where nnn is 1-3 octal digits ([0-7])
\unnnn         Unicode character, where nnnn is exactly 4 hexadecimal digits ([0-9a-fA-F])
\u{nnnn ...}   Unicode character(s), where each nnnn is 1-6 hexadecimal digits ([0-9a-fA-F])
\cx or \C-x    control character, where x is an ASCII printable character
\M-x           meta character, where x is an ASCII printable character
\M-\C-x        meta control character, where x is an ASCII printable character
\M-\cx         same as above
\c\M-x         same as above
\c? or \C-?    delete, ASCII 7Fh (DEL)```

Any other character following a backslash is interpreted as the character itself.

Double-quote strings allow interpolation of other values using `#{...}`:

```"One plus one is two: #{1 + 1}"
```

Any expression may be placed inside the interpolated section, but it's best to keep the expression small for readability.

Interpolation may be disabled by escaping the “#” character or using single-quote strings:

```'#{1 + 1}' #=> "\#{1 + 1}"
```

In addition to disabling interpolation, single-quoted strings also disable all escape sequences except for the single-quote (`\'`) and backslash (`\\`).

You may also create strings using `%`:

```%(1 + 1 is #{1 + 1}) #=> "1 + 1 is 2"
```

There are two different types of `%` strings `%q(...)` behaves like a single-quote string (no interpolation or character escaping), while `%Q` behaves as a double-quote string. See Percent Strings below for more discussion of the syntax of percent strings.

Adjacent string literals are automatically concatenated by the interpreter:

```"con" "cat" "en" "at" "ion" #=> "concatenation"
"This string contains "\
"no newlines."              #=> "This string contains no newlines."
```

Any combination of adjacent single-quote, double-quote, percent strings will be concatenated as long as a percent-string is not last.

```%q{a} 'b' "c" #=> "abc"
"a" 'b' %q{c} #=> NameError: uninitialized constant q
```

There is also a character literal notation to represent single character strings, which syntax is a question mark (`?`) followed by a single character or escape sequence that corresponds to a single codepoint in the script encoding:

```?a       #=> "a"
?abc     #=> SyntaxError
?\n      #=> "\n"
?\s      #=> " "
?\\      #=> "\\"
?\u{41}  #=> "A"
?\C-a    #=> "\x01"
?\M-a    #=> "\xE1"
?\M-\C-a #=> "\x81"
?\C-\M-a #=> "\x81", same as above
?あ      #=> "あ"```

### Here Documents (heredocs)¶ ↑

If you are writing a large block of text you may use a “here document” or “heredoc”:

```expected_result = <<HEREDOC
This would contain specially formatted text.

That might span many lines
HEREDOC
```

The heredoc starts on the line following `<<HEREDOC` and ends with the next line that starts with `HEREDOC`. The result includes the ending newline.

You may use any identifier with a heredoc, but all-uppercase identifiers are typically used.

You may indent the ending identifier if you place a “-” after `<<`:

```  expected_result = <<-INDENTED_HEREDOC
This would contain specially formatted text.

That might span many lines
INDENTED_HEREDOC
```

Note that the while the closing identifier may be indented, the content is always treated as if it is flush left. If you indent the content those spaces will appear in the output.

To have indented content as well as an indented closing identifier, you can use a “squiggly” heredoc, which uses a “~” instead of a “-” after `<<`:

```expected_result = <<~SQUIGGLY_HEREDOC
This would contain specially formatted text.

That might span many lines
SQUIGGLY_HEREDOC
```

The indentation of the least-indented line will be removed from each line of the content. Note that empty lines and lines consisting solely of literal tabs and spaces will be ignored for the purposes of determining indentation, but escaped tabs and spaces are considered non-indentation characters.

A heredoc allows interpolation and escaped characters. You may disable interpolation and escaping by surrounding the opening identifier with single quotes:

```expected_result = <<-'EXPECTED'
One plus one is #{1 + 1}
EXPECTED

p expected_result # prints: "One plus one is \#{1 + 1}\n"
```

The identifier may also be surrounded with double quotes (which is the same as no quotes) or with backticks. When surrounded by backticks the HEREDOC behaves like Kernel#`:

```puts <<-`HEREDOC`
cat #{__FILE__}
HEREDOC
```

When surrounding with quotes, any character but that quote and newline (CR and/or LF) can be used as the identifier.

To call a method on a heredoc place it after the opening identifier:

```expected_result = <<-EXPECTED.chomp
One plus one is #{1 + 1}
EXPECTED
```

You may open multiple heredocs on the same line, but this can be difficult to read:

```puts(<<-ONE, <<-TWO)
content for heredoc one
ONE
content for heredoc two
TWO
```

## Symbols¶ ↑

A `Symbol` represents a name inside the ruby interpreter. See `Symbol` for more details on what symbols are and when ruby creates them internally.

You may reference a symbol using a colon: `:my_symbol`.

You may also create symbols by interpolation:

```:"my_symbol1"
:"my_symbol#{1 + 1}"
```

Like strings, a single-quote may be used to disable interpolation:

```:'my_symbol#{1 + 1}' #=> :"my_symbol\#{1 + 1}"
```

When creating a `Hash`, there is a special syntax for referencing a `Symbol` as well.

## Arrays¶ ↑

An array is created using the objects between `[` and `]`:

```[1, 2, 3]
```

You may place expressions inside the array:

```[1, 1 + 1, 1 + 2]
[1, [1 + 1, [1 + 2]]]
```

See `Array` for the methods you may use with an array.

## Hashes¶ ↑

A hash is created using key-value pairs between `{` and `}`:

```{ "a" => 1, "b" => 2 }
```

Both the key and value may be any object.

You can create a hash using symbol keys with the following syntax:

```{ a: 1, b: 2 }
```

This same syntax is used for keyword arguments for a method.

Like `Symbol` literals, you can quote symbol keys.

```{ "a 1": 1, "b #{1 + 1}": 2 }
```

is equal to

```{ :"a 1" => 1, :"b 2" => 2 }
```

See `Hash` for the methods you may use with a hash.

## Ranges¶ ↑

A range represents an interval of values. The range may include or exclude its ending value.

```(1..2)  # includes its ending value
(1...2) # excludes its ending value
(1..)   # endless range, representing infinite sequence from 1 to Infinity
(..1)   # beginless range, representing infinite sequence from -Infinity to 1
```

You may create a range of any object. See the `Range` documentation for details on the methods you need to implement.

## Regular Expressions¶ ↑

A regular expression is created using “/”:

```/my regular expression/
```

The regular expression may be followed by flags which adjust the matching behavior of the regular expression. The “i” flag makes the regular expression case-insensitive:

```/my regular expression/i
```

Interpolation may be used inside regular expressions along with escaped characters. Note that a regular expression may require additional escaped characters than a string.

See `Regexp` for a description of the syntax of regular expressions.

## Procs¶ ↑

A proc can be created with `->`:

```-> { 1 + 1 }
```

Calling the above proc will give a result of `2`.

You can require arguments for the proc as follows:

```->(v) { 1 + v }
```

This proc will add one to its argument.

## Percent Strings¶ ↑

Besides `%(...)` which creates a `String`, the `%` may create other types of object. As with strings, an uppercase letter allows interpolation and escaped characters while a lowercase letter disables them.

These are the types of percent strings in ruby:

`%i`

`Array` of Symbols

`%q`

`String`

`%r`

Regular Expression

`%s`

`Symbol`

`%w`

`Array` of Strings

`%x`

Backtick (capture subshell result)

For the two array forms of percent string, if you wish to include a space in one of the array entries you must escape it with a “\” character:

```%w[one one-hundred\ one]
#=> ["one", "one-hundred one"]
```

If you are using “(”, “[”, “{”, “<” you must close it with “)”, “]”, “}”, “>” respectively. You may use most other non-alphanumeric characters for percent string delimiters such as “%”, “|”, “^”, etc.